Artificial intelligence (AI) may seem like a type of system developed to be free of human biases, but in reality the performance and output of AI systems depends heavily on the information given to train them. Take, for example, the recent report that an AI program designed by Amazon to search employee applications for the best candidates ended up discriminating against female applicants because the program was trained on mainly male applications.Read More
Yes - you read that right. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is indeed for crybabies and more specifically, crying babies, thanks to a cell phone app called ChatterBabyTM. AI has become so ubiquitous in our everyday lives, that its presence is evident even in the formative years of human life.Read More
Whenever the topic of artificial intelligence is brought up, the first thought that comes to mind is the multitude of human-like robots increasingly featured in TV shows and movies. However, despite our collective fascination with the anthropomorphized artificial intelligence in mainstream media, perhaps the most exciting promise of artificial intelligence is its capacity to perform data analysis at a level impossible for humans.Read More
When asked to think of a humanoid robot, it’s very likely that you are imagining the robots featured in the TV show Westworld or the movie Ex Machina: robots that are human-like but not actually human. These images mostly stem from sci-fi, but the real world isn’t too far from producing robots of this kind.Read More
We are excited to share our December issue about artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning with you. Although this issue is a shorter one, we are excited for you to explore these topics with us, topics that are no longer solely constructs of science fiction, but important aspects of modern daily life.Read More
Bjorn Kjellstrand woke up one July morning in Esrange, Sweden, 200 km north of the Arctic Circle ecstatic to find that finally, he had the highest resolution images of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) to date. After multiple all-nighters and several failed balloon launch attempts, he finally had the pictures which held the potential to completely revolutionize the world's current climate models.Read More
From identifying venomous animals to recognizing our favorite beverage on a crowded shelf, color is a critical part of how we interact with and interpret the world around us. How do our brains know that a can of soda is from our favorite brand by color alone? Human perception of color begins with light.Read More
Grinding up dewy green herbs and red-clay earth is easy, but how do you bottle the twilight-blue of the evening sky or capture the storm-tossed indigo of the ocean? Since humans first began to depict the world on cave walls, blue has proved to be an elusive pigment.Read More
In May 2018, California passed a law requiring that almost all new homes built in the state must have solar power after January 2020. California becomes the first state to pass such a law to support Governor Brown’s initiative to reduce carbon emissions by 40 percent by 2030.Read More
Before the advent of microscopy, scientists such as Leonardo da Vinci had to surreptitiously dissect the human body to gather insights into its functional anatomy. Now, two-photon microscopy has further advanced our ability to peer into living tissues with minimal intervention. For instance, two-photon microscopy allows your window of vision to penetrate through a living mouse’s brain and marvel at a neuronal cell’s inner workings. Pan the microscope underneath the skin and you will see hair follicle stem cells dividing and regenerating in real-time. Over a tumor bulge, you can observe metastatic cancer cells migrating and invading blood vessels. The mechanics of this visual journey relies on two photons meeting each other at the same place at the right time.Read More
Outside of normal sneezing exists an entirely separate group of sneezing-related phenomena. One particularly common condition that affects up to 35% of Americans is called the photic sneeze reflex. This reflex is conveniently abbreviated as ACHOO (Autosomal Dominant Compulsive Helio-Ophthalmic Outburst syndrome), so named because it involves sneezing in response to sudden increases in light intensity.Read More
If you are 18 years of age, you have never known a world without a camera phone. Today, the quality of digital phone cameras is crucial to social media platforms, to businesses seeking visibility, and to people documenting as much of their lives and environments as possible. In this article, we will explore the functions of camera mechanics that created one of the most essential remote sensing devices in human history.Read More
Jellyfish and fireflies – what is something these two animals have in common? They both glow! This emission of light by these organisms is called bioluminescence, a term combining the Greek word “bio” meaning “life” and the Latin word “lumen” for “light.” Bioluminescence is produced through a chemical reaction that occurs within cells. Over the years, scientists have gained an appreciation for bioluminescence and have adapted it not only for research and medical purposes, but also as a platform for their passion for art. This artwork, as captivating as the living organisms that it originates from, has become a beautiful way of introducing people to the wonders of biology.Read More
Light has fascinated humanity since the beginning of civilization. From the alignment of the rocks at Stonehenge to the second line of the Torah: “Then God said, ‘Let there be light;’ and there was light,” virtually every human culture has appreciated the importance of light for survival.Read More
According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), nearly 100 million American adults report suffering from chronic or severe pain. Additionally, pain is a condition that disables more Americans in the US than heart disease, cancer and diabetes combined. The most recent definition of chronic pain is as follows, “a distressing experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage with sensory, emotional, cognitive, and social components.” In accordance with the high prevalence of chronic pain, reports from the Centers for Disease Control concluded that the most commonly prescribed class of medication in the US are opioid analgesics despite a lack of evidence supporting their efficacy in treating chronic pain.Read More
In a survey of substance abuse-related hospital admissions taken by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), a total of 26% of all admissions surveyed were due to primary opioid addiction. Of the 1.7 million cases surveyed, this percentage represents just under half a million cases in which opioid misuse was the primary issue . This staggering proportion underscores the prevalence of opioid dependence in the US and begs the question of what is being done to help those struggling against opioid dependence.
One approach to assisting individuals recovering from opioid addiction has been to treat with a maintenance drug. A maintenance drug is a drug prescribed by a healthcare professional that helps reduce the cravings for opioids that often lead to relapse. Current treatments include methadone and buprenorphine, both of which can be thought of as substitute agents for the more addictive substances. While these types of therapies can often help reduce cravings and prevent withdrawal effects, they still carry the risk of abuse due to their pharmacological similarity to morphine and other opioids.
Naltrexone, a drug that works to block the receptors that mediate the addictiveness of opioids, has been tested previously as an agent to help patients maintain abstinence from opioid abuse. While its oral form demonstrates some efficacy, its clinical use has been limited due to issues with patient compliance . Two recent studies from groups in the US and Norway have tested a new, injectable version of naltrexone that has shown promise compared to current standards of care [3, 4]. While relapse rates remain high among those recovering from opioid abuse, the continued development of pharmacotherapies in helping to reduce cravings is crucial in the effort to help these patients win back their independence .
Staff Writer, Signal to Noise Magazine
MD/PhD Candidate in Molecular Biology Interdepartmental Doctoral Program, UCLA
 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS): 2002-2012. National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Services. BHSIS Series S-71, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4850. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2014).
 Bart, G. Maintenance medication for opiate addiction: the foundation of recovery. Journal of Addictive Diseases 31(3), 207-225 (2012).
 Tanum, L., et al. Effectiveness of Injectable Extended-Release Naltrexone vs Daily Buprenorphine-Naloxone for Opioid Dependence: A Randomized Clinical Noninferiority Trial. JAMA Psychiatry 74(12), 1197-1205 (2017).
 Lee, J. D., et al. Comparative effectiveness of extended-release naltrexone versus buprenorphine-naloxone for opioid relapse prevention (X: BOT): a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet 391(10118), 309-318 (2017).
 Smyth, B. P., Barry, J., Keenan, E., & Ducray, K. (2010). Lapse and relapse following inpatient treatment of opiate dependence. Irish Medical Journal 103(6), 176-179 (2010).
3-D printing. Virtual reality. Artificial intelligence. Self-driving cars. Robotic surgery. Gene editing. Higgs boson. The list goes on. These recent breakthroughs are becoming household words (and items), and they are a testament to the rapid expansion of our society’s technological capabilities. In the world of medical research, however, this paradigm has recently shifted towards exploring natural biological systems rather than focusing on the typical research areas of medical devices and drug development.Read More
Inside the walls of hospitals across the country, babies are literally crying out for drugs. The rising rate of opioid use and abuse has dramatically increased the number of infants born with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Characterized by inconsolable crying, seizures, difficulties feeding, sweating, and vomiting, NAS is the result of an infant’s withdrawal from opioids that the child was exposed to in utero. Upon delivery, newborns diagnosed with NAS often require prolonged treatment and spend days, weeks, or even months in a hospital.Read More
If one were to ask what lies within the heart of a person suffering from opioid addiction, a bacterial infection most likely isn’t the first answer that would come to mind. Infective Endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the heart valve and is one of several infectious diseases that intravenous (IV) drug users have an increased risk of acquiring.Read More
How can the chemical structure of codeine, an opiate sold over-the-counter for years in cough medication, differ only slightly from that of a highly-regulated opiate like morphine? And why does this slight change in structure cause our bodies to respond differently to each drug? The answer comes down to the relationship between drug structure and function.Read More